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Comparisons between Theories

[nativism] ‘There is a first draft of the moral mind’

[cultural learning] ‘The first draft of the moral mind gets edited during development within a culture’

[intuitionism] ‘Intuitions come first’ --- the Social Intuitionist Model is true

[pluralism] ‘There are many psychological foundations of morality’

\citep{graham:2019_moral}

Graham et al, 2019

Haidt & Bjorklund, 2008 figure 4.1

[nativism] ‘There is a first draft of the moral mind’

[cultural learning] ‘The first draft of the moral mind gets edited during development within a culture’

[intuitionism] ‘Intuitions come first’ --- the Social Intuitionist Model is true

[pluralism] ‘There are many psychological foundations of morality’

\citep{graham:2019_moral}

Graham et al, 2019

[nativism] ‘There is a first draft of the moral mind’

[cultural learning] ‘The first draft of the moral mind gets edited during development within a culture’

[intuitionism] ‘Intuitions come first’ --- the Social Intuitionist Model is true

[pluralism] ‘There are many psychological foundations of morality’

\citep{graham:2019_moral}

Graham et al, 2019

Affect Heuristic

Q: What do adult humans compute that enables their moral intuitions to track moral attributes (such as wrongness)?

Hypothesis:

They rely on the ‘affect heuristic’: ‘if thinking about an act [...] makes you feel bad [...], then judge that it is morally wrong’.

Cushman et al, 2010

Are these consistent theories?

[nativism] ‘There is a first draft of the moral mind’

[cultural learning] ‘The first draft of the moral mind gets edited during development within a culture’

[intuitionism] ‘Intuitions come first’ --- the Social Intuitionist Model is true

[pluralism] ‘There are many psychological foundations of morality’

\citep{graham:2019_moral}

Graham et al, 2019

Linguistic Analogy

‘the mind contains a moral grammar: a complex and possibly domain-specific set of rules [...] this system enables individuals to determine the deontic status of an infinite variety of acts and omissions’

Mikhail, 2007 p. 144

Are these consistent theories?
first incompatibility -- intuitions not supposed to be affective according to LA (but they are according to MFT)
second incompatibility -- LA is monistic (MFT is pluralist)

[nativism] ‘There is a first draft of the moral mind’

[cultural learning] ‘The first draft of the moral mind gets edited during development within a culture’

[intuitionism] ‘Intuitions come first’ --- the Social Intuitionist Model is true

[pluralism] ‘There are many psychological foundations of morality’

\citep{graham:2019_moral}

Graham et al, 2019

Dual Process Theory

Two (or more) ethical processes are distinct:
the conditions which influence whether they occur,
and which outputs they generate,
do not completely overlap.

‘[...] moral judgment is the product of both intuitive and rational psychological processes, and it is the product of [...] ‘affective’ and ‘cognitivemechanisms’

\citep[p.~48]{cushman:2010_multi}.

Cushman et al, 2010 p. 48

Are these consistent theories?
You can see the theories making friends here: moral foundations might give us an account of the fast processes (one that doesn’t fit entirely with Greene’s ideas about consequentialism vs deontology, perhaps).

Haidt & Bjorklund, 2008 figure 4.1

Key issue: are unrelfective judgements essentially the result of the foundations? Dual process theory maybe explains why MFQ goes wrong?

What does the Moral Foundations Questionnaire measure?

Social Intuitionist Model

Unreflective ethical judgements are primarily consequences of moral foundations.

Dual-Process Theory

Unreflective ethical judgements are consequences of both moral foundations and processes which involve reasoning from known principles.