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Dual Process Theories Meet the Puzzles

puzzle 1

Why do people tend to respond differently in Trolley and Transplant?

puzzle 2

Why are ethical judgements sometimes, but not always, a consequence of reasoning from known principles?

I think it is clear that our core dual process theory cannot solve them. The key is to elaborate on the nature of the processes.
So this is our dual process theory of ethical abilities.

Dual Process Theory of Ethical Abilities (core part)

Two (or more) ethical processes are distinct:
the conditions which influence whether they occur,
and which outputs they generate,
do not completely overlap.

‘a dual-process approach in which moral judgment is the product of both intuitive and rational psychological processes, and it is the product of what are conventionally thought of as ‘affective’ and ‘cognitivemechanisms’

\citep[p.~48]{cushman:2010_multi}.

Cushman et al, 2010 p. 48

I like to think of this contrast in terms of demands on scarce cognitive resources.
Here is the link to emotion.

puzzle 1

Why do people tend to respond differently in Trolley and Transplant?

puzzle 2

Why are ethical judgements sometimes, but not always, a consequence of reasoning from known principles?